Secure The Quantum Communication using-BB84 and E91 Protocol BB84 (X, Z Basis), E91 (CHSH)

Abstract
A cryptographic solution that is impenetrable is generated by quantum cryptography because it strengthens the prime secrecy used in the distribution of quantum public key distribution. It is a well-known technology that uses the principles of quantum physics to enable safe communication between two entities. This research performs an analysis of BB84 and E91 Quantum Cryptography Security Protocols. Eavesdropping and noise are the main causes of bit error in quantum communication. However, the majority of quantum communication protocols only consider eavesdropping and overlook the impact of noise, leading to inaccuracies in eavesdropper detection. An effective noise analysis model is put out to examine the security of the quantum E91 protocol that Eckert introduced in the collective-rotation noise channel. Eavesdropping is detected using the qubit error rate increment. According to our investigation, when the noise level is roughly 2, the eavesdropper (Eve) can only obtain about 50% of the key from the connection. The findings demonstrate that the E91 protocol is secure in a collective-rotation noise environment and that the raw key is accessible, as we already knew and had demonstrated. A random encryption key was intended to be distributed using correlated polarization states of individual photons by (BB84). The no-cloning theorem which asserted that the polarization state of a single quantum system cannot be perfectly duplicated, was the source of its efficacy. Additionally, it was intimated that any attempt to duplicate the polarization condition would result in its modification or destruction. Errors in the anticipated correlation of the polarization states are the result of a measurement attempt on the distributed key. Such errors are identical to errors brought on by positively de-coherence. BB84 views any noise as proof of an eavesdropper. In reality, all distributed keys will initially have some noise, so traditional communication must be used to obliterate any information that an eavesdropper would have. It can be concluded that the E91 protocol is secure in the real noise environment, and Eve can only get parts of incomplete key, meaning that she cannot read the secret message in the quantum channel.
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Electrical and Computer Engineering
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North South University
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